13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY
13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Doxorubicin hydrochloride treatment can increase the risk of secondary malignancies based on postmarketing reports [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Doxorubicin hydrochloride was mutagenic in the in vitro Ames assay, and clastogenic in multiple in vitro assays (CHO cell, V79 hamster cell, human lymphoblast, and SCE assays) and the in vivo mouse micronucleus assay.
Doxorubicin hydrochloride decreased fertility in female rats at the doses of 0.05 and 0.2 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.005 and 0.02 times the recommended human dose, based on body surface area).
A single intravenous dose of 0.1 mg/kg doxorubicin hydrochloride (approximately 0.01 times the recommended human dose based on body surface area) was toxic to male reproductive organs in animal studies, producing testicular atrophy, diffuse degeneration of the seminiferous tubules, and oligospermia/hypospermia in rats. Doxorubicin hydrochloride induces DNA damage in rabbit spermatozoa and dominant lethal mutations in mice.